Wednesday, April 22, 2015

RSVP Basics

In IP Telephony World, RSVP is a CAC mechanism that can reserve bandwidth for the length of the call. If any router along the path cannot reserve the requested bandwidth, the originating gateway, CUBE, or CallManager can reroute the call, send it with different marking, or drop it.

One drawback to RSVP is that the reservation process causes some delay in call setup. To minimize this, include RSVP control messages LLQ.

RSVP Signaling

Its Network control protocol (protocol number 0x2e and operates at L3) that allows internet applications to reserve QoS resources for their traffic. Note that RSVP will do the signaling for reservation but the actual reservation should be done by queuing mechanisms.

RSVP messages 
1. Path Message
It’s sent by the sender through the path provided by routing protocol towards the receiver. It will store flow info in each node and enables each node to realize the previous and next hop of the session. Those messages are sent periodically. They are used to form RSVP neighbor ship.
2. Reservation Message
Those are sent from receiver to sender and should follow the exact path of Path Message (it will use Path messages to obtain reservation message path). It’s used to maintain reservation state in each router. It is sent periodically.
3. Confirmation and Error Messages
Those are classified as path-error, reservation-error, and reservation-acknowledge messages. Path error messages are generated from path messages and in direction towards sender. At each hop the destination address is the previous hop. Reservation error messages are generated by reservation request and sent towards the receiver. Information carried in error messages can be:

  1. Admission failure
  2. Bandwidth not available
  3. Service not supported

Reservation acknowledgments are generated by sender to confirm the receipt of reservation request.
4. Teardown Message
Those are used to remove RSVP state from each node without waiting for timeout. It can be initiated by host to tear down reservation or router in case reservation timed out. It has two types depending on the initiator (sender/receiver): Path teardown and reservation-request teardown.

RSVP operation
A typical RSVP session involves the following sequence of events:
  1. A potential sender starts sending RSVP Path messages to the session address (destination address).
  2. The receiver receives the Path messages.
  3. The receiver sends appropriate Resv messages toward the sender through the same path of Path messages. These messages will carry FlowSpec, which is used by routers along the path to make reservations in their link-layer media.
  4. The sender receives the Resv message, and then it starts sending application data.
Once those steps are completed successfully, RSVP demon will set arguments in packet classifier (to identify RSVP flows) and packet scheduler (on routers) for the desired flow to be processed using the underlying queuing mechanism.

Note that this sequence of events is not necessarily strictly synchronized. For example, application data can flow before the sender receives Resv messages. Application data that is delivered before the actual reservation contained in the Resv message is typically treated as best effort, nonreal-time traffic with no QoS guarantee.

RSVP reservation Style
Before proceeding with reservation style, four terms should be defined:
  1. Distinct reservation: Each receiver establishes its own reservation with each upstream sender.
  2. Shared reservation: All receivers make a single reservation that is shared among many senders.
  3. Explicit sender: List all selected senders.
  4. Wildcard sender: Select all senders, which then participate in the session.
Reservation style is used by the receiver to define how reservations are accomplished with multiple senders. From the above options, below reservation styles were defined:
  1. Fixed filter (FF): This reservation style consists of distinct reservations among explicit senders. Examples of applications that use fixed-filter style reservations are video applications and unicast applications, which both require flows that have a separate reservation for each sender.
  2. Wildcard filter (WF): This reservation style consists of shared reservations among wildcard senders. This type of reservation reserves bandwidth for any and all senders, and propagates upstream toward all senders, automatically extending to new senders as they appear. A sample application for wildcard filter reservations is an audio application in which each sender transmits a distinct data stream. Typically, only a few senders are transmitting at any one time. Such a flow does not require a separate reservation for each sender; a single reservation is sufficient.
  3. Shared explicit (SE): This reservation style consists of shared reservations among explicit senders. This type of reservation reserves bandwidth for a limited group of senders. A sample application is an audio application similar to that described for wildcard filter reservations.
RSVP Basic Configuration

RTR(config-if)# ip rsvp bandwidth !! Enable RSVP on interface. Without this RSVP messages can’t be received/send. Also, once reservation installed, BW will be subtracted from max-reserved-bandwidth.
RTR(config)# ip rsvp sender session-ip-address source-ip-address protocol des-port-num src-port-num previous-hop-address previous-hop-interface bandwidth burst-size !! Install RSVP sender statically in DB. ip rsvp sender-host command can be used to simulate sender (use proxy feature). Same can be done for receiver.
RTR(config)# ip rsvp neighbor access-list !! To restrict RSVP neighbors
RTR(config)# ip rsvp udp-multicasts des-address !! Instruct the router to send UDP multicasts whenever it generates IP multicasts. This is required sometimes for trigger other hosts.
RTR(config-if)# ip rsvp precedence conform value exceed value !! Set IPP
RTR(config-if)# ip rsvp tos conform value exceed value !! Set ToS
RTR(config-if)# ip rsvp signaling DSCP value !! Set DSCP value for RSVP messages to prioritize them

SENDER-1#sh ip rsvp interface detail fa0/1

   Interface State: Up
     Curr allocated: 32K bits/sec
     Max. allowed (total): 256K bits/sec
     Max. allowed (per flow): 64K bits/sec
     Max. allowed for LSP tunnels using sub-pools: 0 bits/sec
     Set aside by policy (total): 0 bits/sec
   Admission Control:
     Header Compression methods supported:
       rtp (36 bytes-saved), udp (20 bytes-saved)
   Traffic Control:
     RSVP Data Packet Classification is ON via CEF callbacks
     DSCP value used in RSVP msgs: 0x3F
     Number of refresh intervals to enforce blockade state: 4
     Number of missed refresh messages: 4
     Refresh interval: 30
   Authentication: disabled
!! Define policy to restrict/control RSVP messages
RTR(config)# ip rsvp policy local default|acl …
RTR(config-rsvp-policy-local)#{accept | forward} {all | path | path-error | resv | resv-error}

For better performance, minimize the bandwidth consumed by RSVP messages, and reliable RSVP messaging; RSVP periodic refreshment and reliable messaging feature can be enabled.

Also, RSVP can be made compression aware in order to reserve bandwidth for compressed traffic rather than uncompressed one. RSVP messages authentication is supported and can be implemented on per-neighbor basis.

One more option is to change hop IP address of RSVP messages that will be provided to neighbor in path messages (PSB Path State Block). Usually physical interface address will be provided in path messages.

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